Functions

Overview

A function is a block of organized code that is used to perform a single task. Functions let you more efficiently run the same code multiple times without the need to copy and paste large blocks of code over and over again.
Functions make your payloads more modular and reusable, as each function may organize code that performs a single task.

FUNCTION

The FUNCTION command defines the name of a function, and includes the function body — the block of code that will execute when the function is called. Defining a function with the FUNCTION command in of itself does not execute the code within. To execute the code block within a function, it is called using the name of the function. All functions are named ending in open and close parenthesis ("()").

Syntax

The FUNCTION command consists of these parts
  • The FUNCTION keyword.
  • The function name ending in open and close parenthesis ("()").
  • One or more newlines containing the block of code to execute.
  • One or more optional RETURN commands.
  • The END_FUNCTION keyword.

Example

REM Example Function
FUNCTION COUNTDOWN()
WHILE ($TIMER > 0)
STRING .
$TIMER = ($TIMER - 1)
DELAY 500
END_WHILE
END_FUNCTION
STRING And then it happened
VAR $TIMER = 3
COUNTDOWN()
SPACE
STRING a door opened to a world
$TIMER = 5
COUNTDOWN()

Result

  • The FUNCTION command defines a new function named COUNTDOWN() containing a code block with a WHILE loop which types a single period (".") for each value of $TIMER.
  • The first time the COUNTDOWN() function is called, the $TIMER variable holds the value 3. The second time it is called, the $TIMER variable holds the value 5.
  • The string "And then it happened... a door opened to a world....." will be typed.

Passing Arguments

Within DuckyScript 3.0, the scope of a variable are global to the payload. This means that any function may access any defined variable. Unlike programming languages with strict scoping, functions within DuckyScript do not require variables to be passed as arguments within the open and close parenthesis ("()").
In the example above, the $TIMER variable may be considered an argument as it is referenced within the function, however keep in mind that this variable may be used by any other function within the payload.

Return Values

A function may include a RETURN value, like a variable containing an integer or boolean. This allows the function as a whole to be evaluated similar to an expression.
REM Example FUNCTION with RETURN
ATTACKMODE HID
DELAY 2000
BUTTON_DEF
STRING !
END_BUTTON
FUNCTION TEST_BUTTON()
STRING Press the button within the next 5 seconds.
VAR $TIMER = 5
WHILE ($TIMER > 0)
STRING .
DELAY 1000
$TIMER = ($TIMER - 1)
END_WHILE
ENTER
IF ($_BUTTON_PUSH_RECEIVED == TRUE) THEN
RETURN TRUE
ELSE IF ($_BUTTON_PUSH_RECEIVED == FALSE) THEN
RETURN FALSE
END_IF
$_BUTTON_PUSH_RECEIVED = FALSE
END_FUNCTION
IF (TEST_BUTTON() == TRUE) THEN
STRINGLN The button was pressed!
ELSE
STRINGLN The button was not pressed!
END_IF

Result

  • When the IF statement on line 27 checks the condition of the function TEST_BUTTON, the function is called and executed.
  • Based on whether or not the button is pressed, the RETURN value (lines 20 and 22) will be set to TRUE or FALSE.
  • The IF statement on line 27 evaluates the RETURN of the function TEST_BUTTON and types the result accordingly.

Avoiding Errors

  • Function names can only contain letters, numbers and underscore ("_").
  • Function names must end with open and close parenthesis ("()").
  • They may begin with a letter or an underscore, but not a number.
  • Spaces cannot be used in naming a function — however underscore makes for a suitable replacement. For example: FUNCTION BLINK_LED().
  • Be careful when using the uppercase letter O or lowercase letter l as they may be confused with the numbers 0 and 1.
  • Avoid using the names of commands or internal variables (e.g. ATTACKMODE, STRING, WINDOWS, MAC, $_BUTTON_ENABLED). See the full command and variable reference.
Copy link
On this page
Overview
FUNCTION
Syntax
Example
Passing Arguments
Return Values
Avoiding Errors