Conditional Statements

Overview

Previously, original DuckyScript payloads executed sequentially — line by line from start to finish.
With DuckyScript 3.0, it isn't necessary for payload execution to be linear. Conditional statements, loops and functions allow for dynamic execution.

IF

The flow control statement IF will determine whether or not to execute its block of code based on the evaluation of an expression. One way to interpret an IF statement is to read it as "IF this condition is true, THEN do this".

Syntax

The IF statement consists of these parts
  • The IF keyword
  • The condition, or expression that evaluates to TRUE or FALSE
    • In nearly all cases, the expression should be surrounded by parenthesis ( )
  • The THEN keyword
  • One or more newlines containing the block of code to execute
  • The END_IF keyword

Example

REM Example IF THEN
$FOO = 42
$BAR = 1337
IF ( $FOO < $BAR ) THEN
STRING 42 is less than 1337
END_IF

Result

  • The expression "Is 42 less than 1337" is evaluated and determined to be TRUE.
  • Because the IF condition is TRUE, the code between the keywords THEN and END_IF are executed.
  • The string "42 is less than 1337" is typed.

ELSE

The ELSE statement is an optional component of the IF statement which will only execute when the IF statement condition is FALSE. One way to interpret an ELSE statement is to read it as "IF this condition is true, THEN do this thing, or ELSE do another thing".

Example

REM Example IF THEN ELSE
IF ( $_CAPSLOCK_ON == TRUE ) THEN
STRING Capslock is on!
ELSE IF ( $_CAPSLOCK_ON == FALSE ) THEN
STRING Capslock is off!
END_IF

Result

  • The condition of the capslock key, as determined by the target operating system, is checked.
  • If the capslock key state has been reported by the target as ON, the string "Capslock is on" will be typed.
  • Otherwise, if the capslock key state has not been reported by the target (or it has been reported as not being on), the string "Capslock is off" will be typed.

Nested IF Statements

A nested IF statement is quite simply an IF statement placed inside another IF statement. Nested IF statements may be used when evaluating a combination of conditions.

Example

REM Example nested IF statements
IF ( $_CAPSLOCK_ON == TRUE ) THEN
IF ( $_NUMLOCK_ON == TRUE ) THEN
STRING Both Capslock and Numlock are on!
END_IF
END_IF

Result

  • The condition of the first IF statement is evaluated — whether or not the target has reported that the Capslock key is on. If it is TRUE, then the nested IF statement will run.
  • The second IF statement is evaluated much like the first, only this time checking the status of the Numlock key.
  • If both the capslock and numlock keys have been reported by the target as being on, then the string "Both Capslock and Numlock are on!" will be typed.

IF Statements with logical operators

In some cases it may be more efficient to use logical operators within a single IF statement, rather than using a nested IF structure.

Example

REM Example IF statement with logical operators
IF (( $_CAPSLOCK_ON == TRUE ) && ( $_NUMLOCK_ON == TRUE )) THEN
STRING Both Capslock and Numlock are on!
END_IF

Result

  • Because the AND logical operator is in use, the whole condition will only evaluate as TRUE if both sub conditions are TRUE.
  • Similar to the Nested IF example, the string "Both Capslock and Numlock are on!" will only be typed if both capslock and numlock are reported by the target as being on.

IF Statement Optimization

The syntax of IF states that in nearly all cases the expression should be surrounded by parenthesis ( ) — however there is an exception to this rule.
If the condition of only one variable is true or false, the parenthesis may be omitted. This results in a slightly smaller encoded inject.bin file as well as slightly faster payload execution. This is because it removes the step of first reducing the order precedence.

Example

REM Example of optimized and unoptimized IF statements
REM Consider
VAR $FLAG = TRUE
IF $FLAG THEN
STRING FLAG is TRUE
END_IF
REM versus
IF ( $FLAG == TRUE ) THEN
STRING FLAG is TRUE
END_IF

Result

  • In the first example, the IF statement without the parenthesis results in a 6 bytes added to the compiled inject.bin file.
  • In the second example, the IF statement surrounded by parenthesis results in 16 bytes added to the compiled inject.bin file.

Example

REM Example of optimized IF statement with internal variable
IF $_CAPSLOCK_ON THEN
STRINGLN The caps lock key is on
END_IF

Result

  • The internal variable $_CAPSLOCK_ON is checked.
  • If it evaluates as TRUE, the message "The caps lock key is on" is typed.
Copy link
On this page
Overview
IF
Syntax
Example
ELSE
Example
Nested IF Statements
Example
IF Statements with logical operators
Example
IF Statement Optimization
Example
Example